**Scales**

**Scales**help us to draw the picture of anything however big it may be, by shrinking its size and without affecting its shape.

It is the relationship between the actual object or geographical
location and the drawing of it on a paper.

For example, if we draw the image of a bus, car, train, aeroplane,
river, etc. on a paper, the size of these objects are reduced but the shapes
looks the same.

Look at the picture of this car.

The length
of the car in this picture is 6 cm. But the actual length would be 3 m. So, the
scale is 6 cm = 3 m or 2 cm = 1 m.

Look at the picture of a bus.

The actual length of the bus is 6 m.
But in the picture, the length of the bus is 6 cm. Thus, 6 cm represent 6 m.

So, the
scale is 1 cm = 1 m.

Thus, the distance on the map between the place P and place Q is 7 cm.

**Example 1:**The scale of the map is

**1 cm = 80 km**. Find the actual distance if

a. the distance between point A and point B on the map is 4.2 cm.

b. the distance between point C and point D on the map is 1.5 cm.

**Solution:**

a. The distance between point A and point B on the map is 4.2 cm.

Actual distance between two points = 4.2 × 80 = 336 km

**b.**The distance between point C and point D on the map is 1.5 cm.

Actual distance between the two points = 1.5 × 80= 120 km

**Example 2:**The scale of a map is

**1 cm = 200 km**. Using this scale, find the distance on the map between place P and place Q if the actual distance between them is 1400 km.

**Solution:**The scale of the map is 1 cm = 200 km

Since 200 km = 1 cm

Therefore, 1400 km = 1400 ÷ 200 = 7 cm

Thus, the distance on the map between the place P and place Q is 7 cm.

**Example 3:**The children’s park given below is drawn on the scale

**1 cm = 10 m**. Find the actual area of the park.

##
Solution: Length of the park = 8 cm
Actual
length of the park = 8 × 10 m = 80 m

Breadth of
the park = 6 cm
Actual
breadth of the park = 6 × 10 m = 60 m

Actual area
of the park = length × breadth
= 80 m × 60 m
= 4800
sq. m

##
**Magnification**

Look at the
two images drawn on 1/2 cm and 1 cm grids.

These two images are
the same, but enlarged according to the scale factor.

Image 2 is
magnified image of image 1 as image 1 is drawn on 1/2 cm grid, and image 2 is
drawn on 1 cm grid.

##
**Route Map**

Route map is
the drawing of a route on the paper to help us to go from one place to the
other place.

###
**Key**

Observe the map of India given below.

## For example, red colour shows Uttar Pradesh and grey colour shows Rajasthan.

##
**Directions**

Julia is
facing

**north**. She makes a 1/4 turn clockwise. Now, she faces**east**.
Jacob is facing

**south**. He makes a 1/2 turn clockwise. Now, he faces**north**.
Robin is facing

**west**. He makes a 3/4 turn clockwise. Now, he faces**south**.

**Related Topics:**