Pictograph, How to Draw a Pictograph

Pictograph, How to Draw a Pictograph

Pictograph

A pictograph or pictogram uses pictures or symbols to represent quantities.
When the numerical data is represented in a table using pictures or symbols, it is called a pictograph or pictogram.
For example, an apple may be used to represent 4 fruits. This is the scale of the graph. If we want to represent 2 fruits, then we have to draw half an apple instead.

Visually, a pictograph may be more appealing because of the symbols used. However, choosing a scale for a pictograph may be quite tough. We have to draw a part of the symbol to represent a certain quantity and this makes interpretations of the data less accurate.

Suppose, a survey is made on 300 students of a school for their favorite flavor of ice-creams and the results are as follows.

 Ice-cream flavors Vanilla Strawberry Chocolate Butterscotch No. of students 80 70 90 60

Let us represent the above data with a pictograph.

So, we will take a suitable scale to represent the data by using pictures. Let us take the scale as one picture equal to 10 students. That means, to represent the number of students who like vanilla ice cream, we have to draw 8 pictures.

The pictograph for the above data is given here.

The given pictograph expresses the following information:

(i) The different types of ice cream flavours.
(ii) The number of students who like Vanilla ice cream.
(iii) The number of students who like Strawberry ice cream.
(iv) The number of students who like Chocolate ice cream.
(v) The number of students who like Butterscotch ice cream.
(vi) The total number of students on which the survey took place.

What is pictorial representation or pictograph?

When the data about an object or anything is represented in the form of a table using pictures or picture symbols, then it called the pictorial representation of the data or pictograph.
A pictograph is a way of representing data using pictures or symbols. Each picture or symbol stands for a certain number of things. The pictograph makes the information easier and clear to read and understand.
The data collected regarding the plantation of trees in a particular week in a village is given below.
The data can be represented using pictures or symbols.

 Days Number of trees Monday 40 Tuesday 25 Wednesday 15 Thursday 25 Friday 35

Suppose ê™ž represents 5 trees.

Then the pictorial representation of the above data is given as follows. This pictograph is easily understandable and clear to all. You can interpret any information from this pictograph very easily.

 Days Number of trees Monday ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž      ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž      ê™ž     ê™ž Tuesday ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž      ê™ž     ê™ž Wednesday ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž Thursday ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž       ê™ž     ê™ž Friday ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž       ê™ž     ê™ž      ê™ž      ê™ž

Key: ê™ž = 5 trees

Solved Examples on Pictograph

Example 1: The following table shows the number of plants in a flowerbed.

 Flower Daffodil Marigold Orchid Tulip No. of plants 25 18 39 32

Represent the above data with a pictograph.

Solution: Let us take the scale as one picture equal to 5 plants.

The pictograph to represent the above data is as follows.

Example 2: The following pictograph shows the number of absentees in different sections of class VI on the reopening day.

i.                    Which section has full attendance on the reopening day?

ii.                  Which two sections have the same number of absentees?

iii.                Which section had the highest number of absentees? How many were absent in that class?

iv.                Find the total number of students who were absent in class VI on the reopening day.

Solution:

i.                    Section C has full attendance.

ii.                  VI-D and VI-F

iii.                The number of absentees was the highest in VI-A. There were 6 absentees in class VI-A.

iv.                21 students were absent.

Example 3: The following table shows the sales of television sets of an electrical store in the four months from May to August.

 Months May June July August No. of TV sets sold 300 450 200 575

Draw a pictograph to represent the above data.

Solution: We have to choose a symbol that reflects the item being described and the scale of the symbol.

The pictograph to represent the above data is as follows.

Example 4: The following pictograph shows the number of flowers in a garden. Answer the following questions based on the given pictograph.

a. Which flowers are the least in number? How many are there?

b. Which flowers are the most in number? How many are there?

c. There are 18 flowers of the same colour. What is the colour of the flowers?

d. How many fewer purple flowers are there than red flowers?

Solution: From the given pictograph, we can answer the above questions easily.

a. You can see that in the pictograph, there are only 2 symbols in the orange flower.

Thus, the least number of flowers are the orange flowers.

Since each symbol represents 3 flowers, therefore 2 symbol represents 6 flowers.

b. You can see that in the pictograph, there are 9 symbols in the red flower.

Thus, the most number of flowers are the red flowers.

Since each symbol represents 3 flowers, therefore 9 symbol represents 27 flowers.

c. There are 6 symbols in yellow flowers, therefore, the number of yellow flowers is 18.

d. There are 9 symbols of red flowers and 7 symbols of purple flowers. So, 2 fewer symbols in purple flowers. Thus, the number of fewer purple flower than the red flower is 6.

Related Topics:

Bar Graph

Pie Chart or Circle Graph

Histogram

Line Graph and Linear Graph