Pictograph
A pictograph
or pictogram uses pictures or symbols to represent quantities.
When the numerical data is represented in a table using pictures or symbols, it is called a pictograph or pictogram.
For example,
an apple may be used to represent 4 fruits. This is the scale of the graph. If
we want to represent 2 fruits, then we have to draw half an apple instead.
Visually, a pictograph may be more appealing
because of the symbols used. However, choosing a scale for a pictograph may be
quite tough. We have to draw a part of the symbol to represent a certain
quantity and this makes interpretations of the data less accurate.
Suppose, a survey is made on 300 students of
a school for their favorite flavor of icecreams and the results are as
follows.
Icecream flavors

Vanilla

Strawberry

Chocolate

Butterscotch

No. of students

80

70

90

60

Let us
represent the above data with a pictograph.
So, we will take a suitable scale to represent the data by using
pictures. Let us take the scale as one picture equal to 10 students. That
means, to represent the number of students who like vanilla ice cream, we have
to draw 8 pictures.
The
pictograph for the above data is given here.
The given pictograph expresses the following information:
(i) The different types of ice cream flavours.
(ii) The number of students who like Vanilla ice cream.
(iii) The number of students who like Strawberry ice cream.
(iv) The number of students who like Chocolate ice cream.
(v) The number of students who like Butterscotch ice cream.
(vi) The total number of students on which the survey took place.
What is pictorial representation or pictograph?
When the data about an object or anything is represented in the form of a table using pictures or picture symbols, then it called the pictorial representation of the data or pictograph.
A pictograph is a way of representing data using pictures or symbols. Each picture or symbol stands for a certain number of things. The pictograph makes the information easier and clear to read and understand.
The data collected regarding the plantation of trees in a particular week in a village is given below.
The data can be represented using pictures or symbols.
Days  Number of trees 
Monday  40 
Tuesday  25 
Wednesday  15 
Thursday  25 
Friday  35 
Suppose ê™ž represents 5 trees.
Then the pictorial representation of the above data is given as follows. This pictograph is easily understandable and clear to all. You can interpret any information from this pictograph very easily.
Days  Number of trees 
Monday  ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž 
Tuesday  ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž 
Wednesday  ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž 
Thursday  ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž 
Friday  ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž ê™ž 
Key: ê™ž = 5 trees
How to Draw a Pictograph?
Solved Examples on Pictograph
Example 1: The following table shows the number
of plants in a flowerbed.
Flower

Daffodil

Marigold

Orchid

Tulip

No. of plants

25

18

39

32

Represent
the above data with a pictograph.
Solution: Let us take the scale as one picture
equal to 5 plants.
The
pictograph to represent the above data is as follows.
Example 2: The following pictograph shows the
number of absentees in different sections of class VI on the reopening day.
Now, answer
the following questions.
i.
Which
section has full attendance on the reopening day?
ii.
Which
two sections have the same number of absentees?
iii.
Which
section had the highest number of absentees? How many were absent in that
class?
iv.
Find
the total number of students who were absent in class VI on the reopening day.
Solution:
i.
Section
C has full attendance.
ii.
VID
and VIF
iii.
The
number of absentees was the highest in VIA. There were 6 absentees in class
VIA.
iv.
21
students were absent.
Example 3: The following table shows the sales of
television sets of an electrical store in the four months from May to August.
Months

May

June

July

August

No. of TV sets sold

300

450

200

575

Draw a pictograph to represent the above
data.
Solution: We have to choose a symbol that reflects the
item being described and the scale of the symbol.
The
pictograph to represent the above data is as follows.
Example 4: The following pictograph shows the number of flowers in a garden. Answer the following questions based on the given pictograph.
a. Which flowers are the least in number? How many are there?
b. Which flowers are the most in number? How many are there?
c. There are 18 flowers of the same colour. What is the colour of the flowers?
d. How many fewer purple flowers are there than red flowers?
Solution: From the given pictograph, we can answer the above questions easily.
a. You can see that in the pictograph, there are only 2 symbols in the orange flower.
Thus, the least number of flowers are the orange flowers.
Since each symbol represents 3 flowers, therefore 2 symbol represents 6 flowers.
b. You can see that in the pictograph, there are 9 symbols in the red flower.
Thus, the most number of flowers are the red flowers.
Since each symbol represents 3 flowers, therefore 9 symbol represents 27 flowers.
c. There are 6 symbols in yellow flowers, therefore, the number of yellow flowers is 18.
d. There are 9 symbols of red flowers and 7 symbols of purple flowers. So, 2 fewer symbols in purple flowers. Thus, the number of fewer purple flower than the red flower is 6.
Related Topics:
Bar Graph
Pie Chart or Circle Graph
Histogram
Line Graph and Linear Graph