Operations on Large Numbers
Addition of Large Numbers
Addition of
7 and 8digit numbers is also done in the same way as the addition of 4, 5
and 6digit numbers.
We start adding from
the ones place, and if the sum of any number is greater than 10, we regroup it
with the next column.
For example, if the
sum in the ones column is 16, regroup it as 1 ten and 6 ones. Write 6 in the
ones column and carry over one to the tens column.
Example 1:
Add 57,86,335 and 34,95,768.
Solution:
We need to
arrange the numbers in correct columns, before we start adding.
TL

L

TTh

Th

H

T

O

5

7

8

6

3

3

5

+ 3

4

9

5

7

6

8

9

2

8

2

1

0

3

Example 2:
Add 2,41,84,356; 42,86,894 and 3,35,93,547.
Solution:
We need to
arrange the numbers in correct columns, before we start adding.
C

TL

L

TTH

Th

H

T

O

2

4

1

8

4

3

5

6

4

2

8

6

8

9

4


+ 3

3

5

9

3

5

4

7

6

2

0

6

4

7

9

7

Subtraction of Large Numbers
Subtraction of 7
and 8digit numbers is also done in the same way as the subtraction of 4, 5 and 6digit numbers.
Example 1: Subtract 35,98,568 from 72,65,621.
Solution:
We need to
place the numbers in correct columns before we start subtracting.
TL

L

TTh

Th

H

T

O

7

2

6

5

6

2

1

– 3

5

9

8

5

6

8

3

6

6

7

0

5

3

Example 2: Subtract 5,67,82,738 from 8,63,78,423.
Solution:
We need to
place the numbers in correct columns to start subtracting.
C

TL

L

TTH

Th

H

T

O

8

6

3

7

8

4

2

3

– 5

6

7

8

2

7

3

8

2

9

5

9

5

6

8

5

Multiplication of Large Numbers
Let us
discuss the steps involved in the multiplication of 4digit numbers by a
3digit or a 4digit number.
Example 1: Multiply 2657 by 364.
Here, 2657 is
the multiplicand and 364 is the multiplier.
Solution:
L

TTh

Th

H

T

O

2

6

5

7


3

6

4


1

0

6

2

8


1

5

9

4

2

0

+ 7

9

7

1

0

0

9

6

7

1

4

8

Example 2: Multiply 2476 by 1264.
Here, 2476 is
the multiplicand and 1264 is the multiplier.
Solution:
TL

L

TTh

Th

H

T

O

2

4

7

6


1

2

6

4


9

9

0

4


1

4

8

5

6

0


4

9

5

2

0

0


+2

4

7

6

0

0

0

3

1

2

9

6

6

4

Multiplication of a Number by 100, 1000 and 10000
v
While multiplying a number by 100, insert two zeros to the right of
the number.
Example: 32 × 100 = 3200; 250 × 100 = 25,000; 2456 × 100 = 2,45,600
v
While multiplying a number by 1000, insert three zeros to the right of
the number.
Example: 54 × 1000 = 54,000; 453 × 1000 = 4,53,000; 730 × 1000 = 7,30,000
v
While multiplying a number by 10,000, insert four zeros to the right
of the number.
Example: 85 × 10,000 = 8,50,000; 64 × 10,000 = 6,40,000; 47 ×
10,000 = 4,70,000
Division of Large Numbers
Example: Divide
4932 by 38.
Solution:
Step 1: 38 is a 2digit number. So,
consider the number formed by the thousands and hundreds place in the dividend.
49 > 38, so divide 49 by 38.
Step 2: Bring down the next digit and
divide.
Step 3: Bring down the last digit and
divide.
Step 4: No more digits are left to
bring down.
Therefore,
quotient is 129 and remainder is 30.
Checking Division
You can
check your division by using the following formula.
Quotient
× Divisor + Remainder = Dividend
129 × 38 +
30 = 4932
Thus, our
division is correct.
Division by 10, 100 and 1000
v
If a number is divided by 10, then the digit at ones place becomes the
remainder and the remaining digits form the quotient.
Example 1: Divide 7285 by 10.
Solution: Here, Quotient = 728 and
Remainder = 5
Example 2: Divide 37252 by 10.
Solution: Here, Quotient = 3725 and
Remainder = 2
v
If a number is divided by 100, then the digits at ones and tens places
together form the remainder and the rest of the digits form the quotient.
Example 1: Divide 87546 by 100.
Solution: Here, Quotient = 875 and Remainder = 46
Example 2: Divide 7853 by 100.
Solution: Here, Quotient = 78 and Remainder = 53
v
If a number is divided by 1000, then the digits at ones, tens and
hundreds places together form the remainder and the rest of the digits form the
quotient.
Example 1: Divide 89253 by 1000.
Solution: Here, Quotient = 89 and Remainder = 253
Example 2: Divide 83243 by 1000.
Solution: Here, Quotient = 83 and Remainder = 243
Example 3: Divide 97283 by 1000.
Solution: Here,
Quotient = 97 and Remainder = 283
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