**What is Singapore Mathematics Approach?**

Singapore mathematics approach is a teaching method that lays
a greater focus on in-depth understanding and mastery of mathematical concepts
rather than breadth in content and memorization. It is completely based on Jerome
Bruner’s Concrete–Pictorial–Abstract (CPA) technique.

**Why Singapore Mathematics Approach is Useful?**

Singapore
mathematics approach is a teaching approach which is based on the international
curriculum of mathematics used for kindergarten through sixth grade in
Singapore. Singapore consistently tops the international benchmarking
assessment studies on school mathematics. Singapore mathematics approach is the
most useful in mastery of mathematics due to the following reasons:

·
It introduces new concepts using Jerome Bruner’s
Concrete–Pictorial–Abstract (CPA) technique builds upon prior knowledge and
skills and enhances mastery.

·
It encourages children to think mathematically as opposed to
reciting formulas they don’t understand.

·
It teaches problem-solving strategies, challenging children
to solve difficult multi-step word problems.

·
It boosts students’ mathematical fluency without the need for
rote learning.

**What
is Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract (CPA) Technique?**

Some of the
students can find mathematics difficult because it is abstract. The CPA
technique builds on children’s existing knowledge by introducing abstract
concepts in a concrete and tangible way. It involves progressive learning from
concrete materials to pictorial representations, and further to abstract
symbols and problems.

Concrete–Pictorial–Abstract
(CPA) technique is a 3-step learning process in which mathematical concepts are
presented in a logical sequence.

**1. Concrete: Hands-on Representation**

Concrete is
the ‘doing’ stage. The CPA technique brings concepts to life by allowing
children to experience and handle physical (concrete) objects. In
the concrete phase, students interact with physical objects to model
problems.

This phase relates
to real-life experiences, familiar experiences and hands-on activities.

**2. Pictorial: Iconic Representation**

Pictorial is the ‘seeing’ stage. Here, visual
representations of concrete objects are used to model problems. This stage
encourages children to make a mental connection between the physical objects
they have just handled and the pictures, diagrams or models that represent the
objects in the problems. For example, real oranges (or
counters standing in for oranges) are now represented as drawings of oranges or
any other objects like star etc.

**3. Abstract: Symbolic**

Abstract
is the ‘application’ stage. This stage encourages children to apply their
understanding of concepts to solve mathematical problems using numbers and math symbols (+, −,
×, ÷).