**Top 12 Famous Mathematicians**

**1. Srinivasa Ramanujan**

**Born:**22

^{nd}December, 1887, Erode

**Died:**26

^{th}April, 1920, Kumbakonam

**Spouse:**Janakiammal (m. 1909–1920)

**Education:**Trinity College, Cambridge (1919–1920), University of Cambridge (1914-1919)

**Parents:**Komalatammal, K. Srinivasa Iyengar

Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician who made significant contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory and continued fractions. At age of 31, Ramanujan was one of the youngest Fellows in the history of the Royal Society. He was elected “for his investigation in Elliptic functions and the Theory of Numbers.” On 13th October 1918, he was the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

**2. Isaac Newton**

**Born:**4

^{th}January, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom

**Died:**31

^{st}March, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom

**Full name:**Sir Isaac Newton

**Education:**Trinity College, Cambridge (1667–1668), The King’s School, Grantham (1955-1959)

An English mathematician, Sir Isaac Newton was an astronomer and physicist who is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

**3. Euclid**

**Born:**Alexandria, Egypt

**Born Date:**Unknown

**Nationality:**Greek

**Influenced:**Stilpo, Thrasymachus of Corinth, Clinomachus, Eubulides, chthyas

**Teacher:**Archimedes

A Greek Socratic philosopher, Euclid of Megara founded the Megarian
school of philosophy. He was a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BCE
and was present at his death. He held the supreme good to be one, eternal and
unchangeable and denied the existence of anything contrary to the good.

**4. Carl Friedrich Gauss**

**Born:**30

^{th}April, 1777, Braunschweig, Germany

**Died:**23

^{rd}February, 1855, Göttingen, Germany

**Awards:**Copley Medal

**Education:**University of Helmstedt, University of Göttingen, Braunschweig University of Technology

Carl Friedrich Gauss, a German mathematician who contributed significantly in many fields, including number theory, statistics, algebra, analysis,
differential geometry, geodesy, mechanics, electrostatics, geophysics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.

**5. Leonhard Euler**

**Born:**15

^{th}April, 1707, Basel, Switzerland

**Died:**18

^{th}September, 1783, Saint Petersburg, Russia

**Education:**University of Basel (1720–1723)

**Influenced:**Carl Friedrich Gauss, Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Leonhard Euler, a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics like graph theory and infinitesimal calculus. He also made pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.

**6. Pierre de Fermat**

**Born:**17

^{th}August, 1601, Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France

**Died:**12

^{th}January, 1665, Castres, France

**Education:**University of Orléans (1623–1626)

**Spouse:**Louise Long Fermat

**Books:**Writings on Geometrical Loci

**Parents:**Dominique Fermat, Françoise Cazeneuve Fermat

The French mathematician Pierre de Fermat is known as the founder of the
modern theory of numbers. Fermat developed a system of analytic geometry which
both preceded and surpassed that of Descartes. He developed methods of
differential and integral calculus which Newton acknowledged as an inspiration. Fermat was also the first European to find the integration formula for the general
polynomial. He used his calculus to find centers of gravity etc.

**7. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz**

**Born:**1

^{st}July, 1646, Leipzig, Germany

**Died:**14

^{th}November, 1716, Hanover, Germany

**Influenced:**Ferdinand Georg Frobenius

**Education:**Leipzig University, University of Altdorf, University of Jena

**Influenced by:**René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Blaise Pascal

Leibniz pioneered the common discourse of mathematics, including its
continuous, discrete, and symbolic aspects. His ideas on symbolic logic were
not pursued and it was left to Boole to reinvent this almost two centuries
later.

**8. Pythagoras**

**Birth and death date:**Unknown

**Areas of interest:**Politics, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Ethics, Music

**Influenced:**Philolaus, Empedocles, Plato, Alcmaeon of Croton, Euclid, Johannes Kepler, Parmenides, Hippasus

**Philosophical era:**Ancient philosophy

**Schools of thought:**Pythagoreanism

**Influenced by:**Thales of Miletus, Anaximander, Pherecydes of Syros, Themistoclea

Pythagoras discovered that harmonious intervals in music are based on simple
rational numbers. This led to a fascination with integers and mystic
numerology. The Pythagoras Theorem was known long before Pythagoras, but he is
often credited with the first proof. Apastambha proved it in India at about the
same time but some conjecture that Pythagoras visited to India and learned of
the proof there.

**9. Aryabhatta**

**Born:**476 AD, Assaka

**Died:**550 AD, India

**Nationality:**Indian

**Books:**Aryabhatiya

**Main interests:**Mathematics, Astronomy

**Influenced:**Lalla, Bhāskara I, Brahmagupta, Varāhamihira

Indian mathematicians excelled for thousands of years, and eventually even
developed advanced techniques like Taylor series before Europeans did, but they
are denied credit because of Western ascendancy. Among the Hindu
mathematicians, Aryabhata was known as Arjehir by Arabs, may be most famous.
Aryabhatta is famous for his identity Σ (k3) = (Σ k)2. Aryabhatta worked on the approximation for pi (π), and may
have come to the conclusion that π is an irrational number.

**10. Albert Einstein**

**Born:**14

^{th}March, 1879, Ulm, Germany

**Died:**18

^{th}April, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

**Influenced:**Satyendra Nath Bose, Leo Szilard, Wolfgang Pauli

**Influenced by:**Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi

Albert Einstein was unquestionably one of the two greatest physicists in the
history. The atomic theory achieved general acceptance only after Einstein’s
1905 paper which showed that atoms’ discreteness explained Brownian motion.
Another 1905 paper introduced the famous equation E = mc In 1917, he applied the general theory of
relativity to model the structure of the universe.

^{2}. Einstein published at least 300 books or papers on physics altogether.**11. René Descartes**

**Born:**31

^{st}March, 1596, Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France

**Died:**11

^{th}February, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden

**Influenced:**Noam Chomsky, Baruch Spinoza, Slavoj Žižek

**Influenced by:**Aristotle, Plato, Thomas Aquinas, Archimedes

It is considered that René Descartes was the inventor of both analytic geometry and
symbolic algebraic notation. His use of equations to partially solve the
geometric Problem of Pappus revolutionized mathematics. René Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers. He frequently set his views apart from the philosophers who preceded him.

**12. Georg Cantor**

**Born:**March 3, 1845, St. Petersburg, Russia

**Died:**January 6, 1918, Halle, Germany

Cantor's
full name was Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp
Cantor. Of all the great mathematicians, Cantor most perfectly fulfils the
(Hollywood) stereotype that a genius for mathematics and mental illness are somehow
inextricable. Cantor's most brilliant insight was to develop a way to talk
about mathematical infinity. He developed the famous concept of set theory. His
set theory has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. The result was mind-blowing. Unfortunately, he suffered
mental breakdowns and was frequently hospitalized. He also became fixated on
proving that the works of Shakespeare were in fact written by Francis Bacon.